How to prepare a talk

Before the mid-1990s talks were prepared around glass or plastic slides made from photographed drawings and charts. One after the other, slides were dropped into the light stream of a projector. Sometimes they got stuck.

How well I remember bundling my graphed charts and photos I had developed in the dark room and trudging up High Street from the UNSW School of Physiology & Pharmacology to the graphics shop in the Prince of Wales Hospital. And in Philadelphia, walking from the Univ Pennsylvania School of Physiology to the School of Biochemistry graphics shop, which was co-run by the coolest photographer and the coolest artist on the planet.

The many advantages of making slides in this manner included that the costs and efforts going into making them limited their number, and what was on the slides. We could not prepare the slides during the tea break before giving our talks. We had to know what we would say at least a month ahead of time. And no-one could steal our presentations and call them their own. Except for folks within screaming distance.

In the mid-1990s Microsoft Powerpoint became ubiquitous and with it an explosion of badly made presentations and talks that lasted an hour with the presenter reading slabs of prose off what we still call slides.

The professional medical writer has two tasks in preparing data for presentation to an audience: making the topic of the presentation as easy to follow as possible, and making the client or employer happy.

The best-made slide has a picture or a graphic with little or no words, and the presenter points out features in the graphic to the audience.

Unfortunately, that rarely suits the needs of the client or the presenter. If all the salient points are written on the slide, the presenter can fire up the computer and stand in front of the audience knowing that what needs to be said is on the slide. If the audience sleeps through the talk or is only present for a few minutes, the savvy presenter hands out printed copies of the slides to take away with them, or emails the electronic version.

Make sure before you prepare your slides that you understand the needs of your client, and of your audience. Once that is clear, prepare the content in a word file, checking each statement of data against its primary source and making sure that the source of each graphic or chart is acknowledged using the AMA Style Guide.

Once the content is finished, from title slide through conclusion slide and references slide, format it. If one slide looks like it will be too much information, split the data into 2 slides, or 3 slides. The standard is 1 slide 30 seconds to a minute. Make sure you do not have too many sub-bullet points, try not to have any sub-sub-bullet points. Now is the time to fix the way the words and the charts and graphs look; once you add content to the slides you have to fix font sizes, positioning, overall look, and this is far harder to do on your presentation itself rather than on the word document.

The next step is to prepare your presentation software. Set the heading, subheadings and text styles and formatting to the required font size and type, set the background and template of the slide.

Then you are ready to add content to each slide. Do so. It will look beautiful.

Download a presentation from MJoTA,

More descriptions of how to make a professional presentation click here

How to prepare a talk. SJ Dodgson MJoTA 2017 v11n1p0123

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How to write an article for a literature review or data review for a medical journal

A thorough review of literature is needed for a new drug application (NDA); every article or abstract ever written on the drug needs to be referenced. These articles do not end up as a thoughtful opinion piece and are unlikely ever to be republished as is as a review article.

However, the medical literature is filled with review articles, I have prepared more than a few myself. They are useful in giving an overview of a scientific field, a disease, treatment options, just about anything of interest to health and science professionals.

And while we are defining review articles, a published review is always opinion, always a discussion of other folks’ primary data, and cannot, cannot, ever be referenced in an article for data. You have to go back to the original source of data to be able to quote it. Because the reviewer may have misinterpreted, misquoted, and remember, inaccurate health information kills.

A meta-analysis is an original paper, because the professionals listed at authors, or other professionals they hired, have collected original studies and analyzed them all for similarities and differences, to see if analysis of all of them results in an overarching conclusion. You may quote meta-analyses.

Writing a review, follow these steps, in this order:

  1. Make sure you understand formatting and styles in your word processing program, and that you know how to add page numbers, and create an automatic table of contents
  2. Have a dictionary handy to make sure you understand the words you use, and can spell them
  3. Define your audience: everything in your document must be directed at that audience
  4. Define your authors
  5. Formulate the question you are asking that the review will answer, eg, how effective are oral diabetes drugs in maintaining normal FBG (fasting blood glucose) in obese males between 30 and 60?
  6. Plan the search according to how you answer the question: is the review exhaustive (do you want every article every published anywhere on this topic) or narrow (every male between 30 and 60 who is living in Benin) or an article or 2 (2 articles that may or may not be representative of the literature)
  7. Remove review articles if your goal is to review the data
  8. Include review articles if your goal is to review opinion and make sure you attribute that opinion to the review article where that opinion was published
  9. Read all the articles and write an outline which tells a story
  10. Do not make up your mind about how to treat a disease which is at odds with guidelines, and then go searching for original articles to back up your ideas
  11. Pay attention to guidelines from professional organizations, eg, from American Heart Association, American Diabetes Association and write from their guidelines. Unless your client or boss has discovered something so amazing that the guidelines are obsolete (this has never happened to me in 2 decades in medical writing)
  12. Write an interesting story that is worth reading, between 1000 and 3000 words
  13. Back up each statement with original data;
    -don’t say “in Africa, men of 45 are dying from lack of treatment for diabetes” when you have as a source a single paper from a single village in Guinea that is a case report of one man
    -say “a case-study from a village in Guinea reported that a man died from lack of treatment for diabetes”
    -don’t say “500 million men, women and children have undiagnosed diabetes in the world”
    -say “An analysis by x international body was reported which estimates as many as 500 million men, women and children may be living with diabetes”
  14. Do not blame the patients who have the disease, and do not confuse the patient with the disease
  15. Add a complete reference section, according to the style sheets published by the journal you are writing for, in the absence of other guidance, the AMA Style Guide
  16. Go through your document backwards, making sure you have consistent punctuation, styles

How to write an article for a literature review or data review for a medical journal SJ Dodgson MJoTA 2017v11n1p0117

We can help you prepare a review article, investigator brochure, grant proposal, introduction or discussion in a manuscript.